Walls are made by Bitinyalı Bursa, the first founder of Bursa on natural rocks. Ottoman period, especially after the attacks and after Timur back from Mehmed Bey's siege has been strengthened repaired by Haji Pasha İvaz. The total length of the walls is 3,38 km. Imperial Gate, Ground Floor, Fatah Gate (Water Gate), the dungeon door and five-door called the Door Spas; There are a total of 14 towers between Arsenal and Cakir baths.
At the begining of 2005 with the restoration of the first five hundred meter section of Istanbul Walls of projects approved by the Imperial Gate to the Cultural Heritage Conservation District Board of Bursa and the implementation phase is still going on, starting from this point.
Imperial Gate: Alias Hisar kapı'dır.b meaning is the main city in the Ottoman Empire before the door of Bursa. The remaining period of the Ottoman Empire at the border and establishment has been one of the most important gate due to undertake a military function. Silk and Spice Road also has joined the re-opening of this structure Bursa icons. Restoration framework evcut stones cleaned and preserved in a new tissue plant roots are aligned with the original tissue.
Fatah Gate (Ceremonial Area): a time to celebrate the holidays, the organization of festivals, the area where the park is Pinarbasi organization of fairs are organized as a parade ground again today. Each year the celebration of the conquest of fidelity which houses the Fatah door has been restored.
Yer Gate: Bursa Castle, which is one of the five-door and Üftade Mosque and Tomb located near Place Gate (Bab-i ground) inside the fort in Bursa Hellenistic bearing grid plan until the traces of understanding the two main road one end of the street Kavaklı which It is located. Door to door right place (Kara Ali) Mosque, is located on the left-Muallem households.
Dungeon Gate: Gate walls extending southward from the hot springs are connected to the dungeon door. Both sides in the prison ruins of the Dungeon Gate in the east than surviving without injury cornered bastions, it was built in 1418 by Sultan Mehmet Çelebi.
Ulucami (Grand Mosque)
A large parking area where the Orhan Gazi Yildirim Beyazit was conducted in time between the years 1396-1400. It is the first of many monumental domed mosques from the Ottoman Ulu mosque sits on twelve large square pillars are 20 domes. After Yildirim Bayezid Nicopolis victory in 1396 has begun construction Ulucami. The first building of the mosque after prayers bit Yildirim Bayezid, Mullah Fenari, the congregation has kıldıran Somuncu the Emir Sultan found the Father. The first imam of the Grand Mosque of Suleyman Celebi, the author of Mawlid. The fountain is located under the dome of the mosque sixteen square pool and has three bowl fountain. The end date of the inscription on the mosque pulpit door 802 (1399-1400) as of year shows. The two minarets of the mosque's minaret Yildirim Bayezid time western, eastern The minaret was built by Sultan Mehmet Çelebi. Timur destroyed mosque in the invasion of the largest repair was carried out in these years have been repaired after the 1855 earthquake.
Cumalikizik which is one of the regions where they settled first in Bursa Ottomans, 180 is still used, with a total of 270 homes where some of the conservation and restoration of Ottoman housing bears tissue present.
Cumalikizik settlements southeast of the ruins of a church from the Byzantine era in the outskirts of Uludağ Ihlamurc the site was discovered in 1969, are stored in some architectural fragments found on the surface of the Istanbul Archaeological Museum, the Church remains. Bursa has managed to dominate the region after the Ottoman dynasty organizations established in a short time, close to Bursa in 1326, has been accepted as definitive presence in Iznik conquered the region in 1331. Thus, creating Ottoman peoples of this land settled towns and villages. Cumalikizik village was established as a foundation and the settlement pattern of this feature residential architecture has reflected on life. Uludag's northern outskirts with the other villages of the region trapped in the valley because of this position '' my daughter 'is named. Villages close to the creek to separate from each other Derekızık, ransom and that the Fidyekızık by going en masse Friday prayer in the village of Kızık village de Cumalikizik names are given.
With the conquest of Bursa, not only in the political field, in the commercial area is a growth was observed, Bursa has increased rapidly in Anatolia and Rumelia between major commercial centers. Therefore, it is also a very inn built in the city. Located on the Anatolian trade routes known as merchants and traders of the night and the building for the rest of the inn, a caravanserai was called to the larger ones. Inns and bedestens for Bursa as an important city for trade date represents the pulse of the economy. Trade zone started to be formed in the 14th century Ottoman Bursa, the first capital; 16th century inn has completed the development of the formation of the bazaar and marketplace. Early in the region with Han 668-year history during the Ottoman period, it is important in terms of showing how this process of market structure in Bursa. Inn in this area; Koza Han, Tree Inn, Rice Han Silk Khan, Amir Khan, Geyve Khan, Galle Khan, Pit (Kütahya) Han, Kapan Han, during the stagnation in Salt han'dır.bursa' in the 17th and 18th century inns have remained neglected in the 19th century with the construction of new roads and the modernization work is divided into the traditional centers of the region it is increasing even though the inn is an important cultural heritage values given day as needed.
Unesco World Cultural Heritage
Khan District of Bursa's historical area, the Sultan Mosque and Cumalikizik village; UNESCO for inclusion on the World Heritage List; Bursa Metropolitan Municipality, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism Cultural Assets and Museums General Directorate of the working file prepared as of February 1, 2013 has been transmitted through the UNESCO World Heritage Centre Secretariat of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
İznik (İznik Walls)
Bithynian period (4th century BC) to be introduced in building walls, new plug-in has taken shape today with the Roman and Byzantine periods. Iznik walls surrounding environment in the form of five-sided polygon is approximately 4970 meters. On the walls of varying heights between 10-13 meters, it has 114 bastions in the form of round and square. Seen from the point of intersection of two main streets of Nicaea, it appears the four main gates.
ISTANBUL GATE: Located in the north of the city, Istanbul Gate, was formed three separate door. Outside the main gate at the entrance to the city with an oval courtyard located between the inner wall of the door. The front entrance is the first door on the outside of walls, a half-cylindrical towers on either side of the door. Door is located in the middle of the rectangular walls of the tower combines full; frames, formed from granite column was placed on a granite column. The large arches over the doorways to this place, is actually sitting on the corner walls, filling the space between the edge of the jamb are closed. Located next to the main tower of the walls constitute this second door on the second floor above. In these, a cell dome. Above the door, they are bound to be AmAlArlA k interconnect inside and out. At the end of the courtyard there is a third structure made of hewn stone. It turned out that two door jambs face on the Medusa head is seen. They were placed to protect the city from the influence of evil spirits.
LEFKE GATE: door located at the eastern end of the city, Istanbul Door shows great similarity. Likely to be seen on the same dates strong, but can not determine the exact date for both doors. Probably closed courtyard with buildings added in advance while the Byzantine era courtyard and corridors were way as we see today. Between two cylindrical towers in a rectangular door which is located outside the entrance to the city from the top of a thick marble columns formed by deleting the tree. The inside of the arch is erected on the door. Also on the left side of the door reused, there is a high relief frieze that view. Human figures are shown on a very cramped. Belt on the middle door has an inscription inside and out. That in the inside "on behalf of the walls of the imperial dynasty and Emperor Hadrian built his famous Iznik metropolis Cassius surveillance. On the outside "... people with money sent to the city in the year and built this empire building" it is located. Ashlar brick is located above an arched gateway, there is a tower of rubble and brick row on the right side.
LAKE GATE: in the west of the city. Lefke gate ongoing at the end of the main street, but found the door of the lake, today there is no trace of the door. Half of the tower standing on the right side, while the left side is given only basis. This part is the appearance of the walls in the form of more openness with the collapse occurred. Gate tower, known as the outer covering of the brick tower, and the interior of Khorasan mortar and occurred in the rubble piled on each other. According to a source known to the following inscription on the architrave it is located. "Pious, fortunate and magnificent emperors, proconsuls great priest, consoles, home father, Caesar, Marcus Aurellus Claudius grandstand illustrious ambassadors and the emperor's heir in the second year of the ruling Vellius Julias, with renowned jurist Sallius Antony walls of the famous Iznik city under surveillance has been repaired.
YENİŞEHİR GATE: The most interesting part of the magnificent Iznik walls with ashlar AD during the Roman era 1. Open the doors, which represents th century. Akdeniz door consists of three parts. External walls are connected to the first input that allows the city to the front door, the western part is made of şipoly parts are united by walls and the eastern part is connected to a small wall. Internal door frame is reached by passing through the courtyard. It is also built with ancient part şipoly but today very little has been documented that remain allowed.
Green mosque in the district, in 1419, was built by Sultan Mehmet Çelebi. "Inverted T" Green is the planned mosque, the mosque is one of the most beautiful historical building of our country as well as Bursa. The architect of the mosque Haji Pasha İvaz. Structure, the remains of some building materials were used in the Byzantine period. Crown gate at the entrance of the Green Mosque is a fine product of the Turkish stone carving. "Turbans veil is of extraordinary beauty. Door rat-run of green stone and marble. In stone right of the door and two windows and a left outer altar between them. They are also very fine stonework seen. "(Bursa Encyclopedia," Green Mosque "clause) all the decorations of the mosque was built by the famous poet Lamia Ali Calligrapher Celebi father. Large section of the mosque is covered with tiles. The interior walls, ceilings, and entire hillsides are covered with tiles iwans transition. The tiles are processed by a craftsman named Majnun Mehmet Mosque. One of the most perfect examples of tile work on the mosque is the mihrab, which is higher than ten meters. Altar where flowers of various geometric motişerl, the mosque is one of the most beautiful places. "According to some authors, this is merely a tile altar in heaven. Respectively towards the outside in calligraphy "sülüs" and "kufi" writing with a generation that uses the format, twelve istalaktitl a delete order comes a geometric floral motifs water, and then the inner frame. (...) The altar on the right (west) side, the two sides found a narrow stairway railings leading up the hill and covered with hexagonal cone is the product of an elaborate woodwork "pulpit" is located. (Bursa Encyclopedia, "Green Mosque" article) .Ahşap the most beautiful examples of craftsmanship can be seen in this mosque in Bursa. Shutters, one of the finest examples of the period's woodwork. In a way that no other mosque, a very fine ornamentation in striped domes. There is a beautiful fountain in the mosque. Fountain made from a single piece of the fountain is unique delicacy. Researchers traveler Texier, this structure objection of Bursa represents perhaps the most perfect work of Ottoman rule. Historian Hammer, former writer of the dome is decorated with tiles in the mosque's minarets. Evliya Celebi, this mosque as a reason for granting the green minarets and domes name suggests, which is covered with green tiles
In this extremely quiet and dream like site which constitutes Bursa, there is especially one more place.The cemetery around mosque of Muradiye… There are tombs of a few former sultans lying here under the shadow of high plane trees and tower like cypresses.” (Pierre Loti, 1924). Undoubtedly, the travellers visiting Bursa were fascinated mostly from Muradiye. The incredible cypresses and plane trees, once over shadowing the graves, either were not present or lost much of their former grandeur today… The historical atmosphere surrounding the Külliye is mostly preserved. The deepest district of Bursa today is Muradiye with all its barbers, old cafes, and streets. You feel a burn in your stomach when you visitthe tombs of princes, sultans, queens whom once were resting under these trees. ”Whoever want to experience and feel the silence of death and comfort of after death must go to theTombs of Muradiye… Only in this place, death is not terrible,. The heaven promised in the holy boks only in this place seems possible to us.” Yakup Kadri has described Muradiye as such in one of his writings. During reign of Sultan Murad II, although the capital was Edirne, his favourite city was Bursa. Thus, he was buried in a most peaceful place. We can call Muradiye as a group of tombs. There is no such siteas here where the graves are such glorified. As C.A. Kansu has said: “I realized the beauty of death here”"Muradiye is the heart and soul of Bursa. Thus, the spirits return to other world here.” If you see the people buried in these tombs, strolling happily under the plane trees, don’t be surprised. Because Muradiyeis the heaven realm of death.
Emirsultan, with minarets racing with cypresses towards the sky, and its district; appears on a hill of Bursa overlooking Uludağ. Emirsultan district, just like the place of its founder in hearts of people, has been situated at a higher than the ground level withall its calm and proud. Emir Sultan is not a sultan of any kind of property or commodity, He is the sultan of souls. Emir Sultan had come to Bursa and settled here in pursuit ofa holy light… He was not a real sultan but Ottoman sultans were coming to see him before they went for a campaign. Similar to the visits of emperors of Byzantium to the monks in order to have the good willing prayers of them, the Ottoman sultans were coming to see Emir Sultan for his good willing prayers before they started a campaign. Today, Emir Sultan is the most significant oblation site of Bursa. The newly married couples surely visit Emir Sultan. The boys to be circumcised come to visit him anyhow. And many people with various difficulties come to visit him in pursuit of a cureor a solution. Here, it will be appropriate to cite afew verses of Bedreddin Uşakli “There is neitherfog nor any cloud on the horizon of this evening, Emir Sultan, a flame among the cypresses”